The surface of a material is continually exposed to its environment and is,
therefore, saturated with the elements present in it, which is yet another source of inhomogeneity
of its chemical composition. For instance, a surface exposed to the atmosphere has a higher content
of carbon and oxygen. The presence of the latter is known to decrease the electrical and chemical
resistance of materials. An electron-beam treatment by intense pulsed electron beam generated on the
RITM machine essential decreases the concentration of these elements in the near-surface layers.